piątek, 15 stycznia 2016

Conversation Analysis

Forensic linguistic studies also thre structure of spoken conversation by examining how word choices are made to organise exchanges between people. So the forensic phonetics is the use of phonetic technique during the analysis to the sounds that applied to criminal investigation. This technique includes sound technical comparison, voice recognition, transcriptions of spoken language and inclues also the disputed speech transcription and authentication records. We know how the sound is produced by the human vocal organs but we need still a sophisticated technology which can be used to measure tone, color and sound pressure.

The written linguistic evidence or a transcription of conversation will be analyzed by linguistic theories which involve syntactic knowledge to analyze how the text is built and how is based on the structure of the language.

We see how this issue is complex and how it requires a lot of linguistic knowledge.

Questions of forensic linguistics

It is clear that linguistics evidence can play a crucial role in investigating a crime. So sometimes the linguistics evidence in a case is obvious. So I would like to present fundamental questions asked about language-based evidence. All questions are focused on reflecting a case. Often the crucial investigative issues are

1. author/speaker identification: Who authored this document? Who spoke this voicemail message?

2. text similarity: Are these texts or screen names related to each other? Are these trademarks too similar? Are these manuals too close for comfort?

3. text typing: Is this document really what it purports to be --- is it a real suicide note, a real threat letter, a real confession, a real predatory chat, etc?

4. linguistic profiling: What can be determined about the author’s background from this text?

Generally Forensic linguistics is a new-born science which makes connection between linguistics and the law. For this reason it doesn't have terminology. But there are the new approaches:

- terrorism cases
- cross-cultural communication
- similarities in large corpora
- multimodal aspects of victim's narrative

I'm very interested in this branch of linguistic so I would like to read a book about it.Unfortunately, in Poland there isn't this type of book.

Forensic linguistic

Forensic linguistics? I would like to deepen this knowledge. Forensic linguistics (or legal linguistics) is the application of linguistic knowledge and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation and judicial procedure. This branch of linguistics is very interesting. There are three areas of application for linguists who work in forensix contexts:
1) Understandig language of written law (it isn't so easy)
2) Understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes
3) the provision of linguistic evidence

So forensic linguistics covers all areas where language and law intersect. The concept first appeared in 1968 when a progessor of linguistics, Jan Svartvik, used it in an analysis of statements by T.J. Evans. In the 1980s, Australian linguistis discussed the application of linguistics to legal issues and they dispovered that a phrase such as 'the same language' is open to interpretation not only by lawyers but also by linguists.

środa, 30 grudnia 2015

The strategies

Teresa Tomaszkiewicz, the author of Audiovisual Translation, offers the strategy in film sutitling.
The strategies are:

- Omission when the cultural reference is omitted altogether
- Literar translation where the solution in the target text matches, original as closely as possible
- Borrowing where original terms from the source text are used in target text
- Equivalence where translation has a similar meaning and function as the target culture
- Adaptation where the translation is adjusted to the target language and culture in an attempt to evoke similar connotations to the original text.
- Generalisation which might also be referred to as neutralisation of original.
- Explication which usualy involes a paraphrase to explain cultural term.

The mode of translation usually limits the strategies available to translator. Teresa Tomaszkiewicz discussed eight strategies in operation in film subtitling.

czwartek, 24 grudnia 2015

Voice-over method

The third audiovisual translation is a professional voice-over which is still very important in certain countries and for certain types of videos and audiences. Voice-over is method which consists of record over the original audio which can be heard in the background, using a single voice. This method is most commonly used for documentaries, training materials but also for movies. One of advantages of voice-over translation is better focus on the action displayed (especially if there are graphics or on-screen information). In other words the voice-over is a process of replacing a narration voice track in a foreign language in a multimedia medium. This method is very popular in Poland. Lectors which are traditionally men with husky voices read all dialogue in Polish. While the lector drones on, viewers hear the original soundtrack faintly in the background. I think that most Polish people prefer to watch movie with voice-over. But I would like to point out the education value of subtitles in the process of learning a foreign language. If you learn Italian watch movies with subtitles.

niedziela, 15 listopada 2015


Dubbing. I think that dubbing is a really complex job, amazing process of translation, adaptation and recording of movie or television program to create the feeling of illusion that the characters talk in the target language. People who cannot read the subtitles can always watch movies because dubbed film reach more people (I have in mind the blind people, children or dyslexics). The dubbing process is highly complex and involves many factors. The first difficulty is matching the lip movements of the actor. So we have to change the order of the words to accomplish this or find synonyms that will fit. Recording of the translated text is done a professional sound studio by professional actors or specialists of this area. After the test is recorded and specialists provide the file montage. In Italy, for example, dubbing is systematic with a tradition going back to the 1932. Dubbed movies had golden years in Mussolini’s period when the foreign language movies was banned for political reasons

                                                                            Video about dubbing

sobota, 7 listopada 2015


In audiovisual translation, subtitles, which are not preferred by Italian people, are text of movie, television program, video game usually displayed at the bottom of the screen. In my opinion, creating subtitles is not only the cheapest method of translation, but it is also usually preferred by people all around the world. They want to hear the original voices of the favourite actors. Voice-over can destroy everything. However, subtitles translation differs form what we hear. During the process of creating subtitles for a film or television program, the picture and each sentence of the audio are analyzed by the subtitle translator. Why? It is not possible to translate all sentences. Sentences of language A can be completely different from sentences of language B. In other words, the meaning is more important than the form. In addition, culturally implied meanings cannot be conveyed in the written subtitles (for example, Beh! - Italian expression which is untranslatable in another language).